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  Title Contrasting the failure behaviour of high vs low frequency ERW seams
  Author(s) Dr Brian Leis  
  Abstract THIS PAPER BRIEFLY OUTLINES THE HISTORY of electric-resistance welding processes and aspects that have been sources of defects, and then illustrates, and discusses the nature of the defects and their failure. Next, historic trends in failure frequency are quantified and contrasted to the nature of potential seam failures in high vs low frequency ERW pipes. Trending such results grouped as cold welds, hook cracks, stitched seams, and selective seam weld corrosion in regard to failure pressure shows that the HF seams can be prone to the same mechanisms of failure as were evident for the low-frequency process. But it also becomes clear that the modern HF seams show a marked reduction in failure frequency, which traces to improved quality – and possibly also improved mill-inspection technology. Finally, these results are trended in regard to pressure from which it is apparent that higher pressure hydrotesting can be essential to affect control over such defects.  
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