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  Title Penetration depth of ships’ anchors in regard to pipeline crossing protection: a review
  Author(s) Victoria Monsma, Jan Spiekhout, and Henk Harthoorn  
  Abstract LARGER SHIPS, HEAVIER ANCHORS, deepening of navigation canals and rivers, and less pipeline cover become more and more a reality. All this can lead to severe pipeline damage caused by anchors, especially dragged anchors, and these are the main threat to pipeline crossings. The severity of pipeline damage caused by a dragged anchor depends very much on the depth and type of cover, and varies from a scratch to complete rupture of the pipeline. Nowadays pipeline crossings are mostly laid using the horizontal- directional drilling (HDD) technique, and depth of cover is not an issue in this case. However, the majority of existing pipeline crossings have been laid with other techniques such as sinker, bottom tow, or microtunnelling, where soil cover is much less. Pipeline crossings are usually of great capital value and are very important for security of supply, and this is why it is so important to have more insight in the soil-penetration depth of ships’ anchors versus the code requirements for burial depth of pipeline crossings of waterways.

DNVGL has performed a literature study on penetration depth of ships’ anchors in relation to pipeline crossing. The scope of the study was to review and evaluate the results of tests on the penetration depth of anchors in sandy soils and the penetration depth in case of rock cover.

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